實例分析:長難句常考的三大經典從句

2017-04-28 11:50 網絡

  【摘要】一篇考研閱讀理解文章中一般會出現3-5句長難句,而且還至少命制一道針對長難句理解的考題,因此很有必要熟悉長難句的種類以及它們各自的重點。本文給出真題閱讀中的一些典型的包含三大從句(即定語從句、名詞性從句和狀語從句)的例句,建議仔細分析理解,以做到考試時碰到類似句子就能抓住重點。

  一、從語法成分來看

  1.定語從句

  (1)The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.

  [參考譯文]

  通過雇用大量的職業人才,這一變化滿足了新時代的技術要求,防止了效率下降——在過去,這種效率下降經常使家族公司在充滿活力的創業者之後的第二代或第三代毀掉全部財産。

  [結構分析]

  本句是一个并列句,以and连接;第一个分句的主干是The change met the technical requirements...,后面的介词结构by engaging a large professional element作状语,说明met the technical requirements of the new age的方式;第二个分句的主干是(the change) prevented the decline in efficiency,后面的that引导的定语从句修饰decline in efficiency。注意:engage此处的意思是“雇,聘”。

  (2)A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the anti-science tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.

  [參考譯文]

  1996年進行的一項新聞調查表明,反科學的標簽還被貼在其他許多團體身上——從主張消滅最後剩下的各種天花病毒的機構,到主張減少基礎研究經費的共和黨人。

  [結構分析]

  本句的主干是A survey...reveals that...,主语是survey,谓语是reveals,后面的that引导一个宾语从句,其主干是:the anti-science tag has been attached to many other groups as well,后面的部分是from和to连接的两个名词:from authorities...to Republicans...,说明other groups的内容,而两个名词后面各自带一个定语从句,都由who引导。

  The astonishing distrust of the news media isn’t rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorial skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and their readers。

  [參考譯文]

  讀者對新聞媒體令人驚訝的不信任並非源于報道失實或報道技能較差,而是源于記者和讀者之間世界觀的日常沖突。

  [結構分析]

  本句的主干是distrust ... isn’t rooted in... but in... (不信任的根源不是…而是…),其中be rooted in... 的意思是“根源在于…”。注意:这是一种特殊句式,重点在but之后的部分。

  2.名詞性從句

  Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request.

  [參考譯文]

  網絡文化非常推崇这样一种理念:出现在用户屏幕上的信息应该是根据用户特定要求发送过来的。

  [結構分析]

  本句的主干是Online culture thinks highly of the notion that...,其中notion后面的that引导一个同位语从句,说明notion的具体内容;同位语从句的主干是the information...comes there...,其中flowing onto the screen作定语,修饰the information,句末的by specific request作状语,修饰come there。

  3.狀語從句

  Consumers seem only concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy’s long-term prospects, even as they do some modest belt tightening.

  [參考譯文]

  消費者們看上去只是有點擔心,而沒有恐慌,很多消費者說盡管他們正在把開支緊縮一點,但是他們對經濟的長期前景仍然保持樂觀。

  [結構分析]

  本句是以and连接的并列句,其中第二个分句的主干是many say...,say后面的部分是宾语从句,其中还包含一个as引导的让步状语从句。

  二、從句子間關系來看

  1、主從複合句

  When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.

  [參考譯文]

  當藝術上的一項新運動達到一定流行程度時,最好先弄清該運動倡導者的目的,因爲,無論他們的創作原則在今天看來多麽牽強、多麽荒謬,在未來這些理論有可能會被視爲正常的東西。

  [結構分析]

  本句的主干是it is advisable to find out... for... it is possible that...,句首的When引导一个时间状语从句,句中的for... it is possible... (至句末)是一个并列分句,表示原因,其中for后面的however +形容词farfetched and unreasonable引导状语从句,表示让步。在主干it is advisable to find out... 中,it是形式主语,后面的不定式结构to find out what its advocates are aiming at是真正的主语。

  2、並列句

  While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your “wares” and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.

  [參考譯文]

  與你談話時,可能成爲你未來老板的人會考慮你所受的教育、你的經曆和你的其他資曆是否在雇傭你以後會給他帶來好處。你的“資曆”和能力必須有條不紊、合理連貫地展示出來。

  [結構分析]

  这也是一个并列句,包含两个分句。第一个分句的主干是your could-be employer is deciding whether...,其中whether引导一个宾语从句whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you;第二个分句的主干是your “wares” and abilities must be displayed...。注意:pay sb. to do sth。此处的意思是“做…对…有利”;“wares”的本义是“商品、货物”,但在本文中,作者认为找工作就是推销自己,所以结合本文的背景,wares的意思是“(求职者的)资历或能力”。

  (我是實習小編覃夜:命運如同手中的掌紋,無論多曲折,終掌握在自己手中。)

下载考研幫,立即查看全部内容
資料下載
  • 2019-09-20最強政治結構圖!五天全部背熟!沖刺80沒問題!
  • 2019-09-2093分達人英語筆記
  • 2019-09-20[回馈論壇] 马哲毛中特史纲思修知识点总结
  • 2019-09-20政治常考知識點必備
  • 2019-09-19新概念考研必背36篇(彩版)-太及時了~我內牛滿面
2018考研
  • 2019-09-04【複試后必看】考研幫学堂招募学长学姐啦!
  • 2019-09-20北京林業大學mpacc全日制錄取一般多少分?
  • 2019-09-162019年蘇大考研學姐經驗貼
  • 2019-09-09倒計時103天!這裏有我們爲你准備的北師大教育運營筆記和視頻
  • 2019-09-02跪求廣州中醫藥大學的師哥師姐
院校咨詢